Chinese economy

Ten major advances in Science in China in 2020 From Ministry of science and technology

The following is the Ten major advances in Science in China in 2020 From Ministry of science and technology recommended by recordtrend.com. And this article belongs to the classification: Chinese economy.

On February 27, the high tech research and Development Center (basic research management center) of the Ministry of science and technology released the top ten scientific progress of China in 2020. Ten major scientific developments, including the first automatic sampling return of the lunar surface by chang’e-5 and the new record of China’s manned deep-sea diving set by “striver”, stand out from 31 candidate developments.

According to the number of votes, the top ten achievements of China’s Science in 2020 are as follows:

Novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic situation has been highlighted by Chinese scientists

Chang’e-5 realizes automatic lunar surface sampling and return for the first time

“Striver” set a new record for China’s manned deep diving

Revealing the key steps of human genetic material transfer

Transparent ferroelectric single crystals with ultra-high voltage electrical properties have been developed

2020 Everest elevation measurement

Paleogenomics reveals the evolution and migration history of Chinese population in recent ten thousand years

Big data depicts the earth’s 300 million year history of biodiversity evolution with the highest accuracy so far

In depth analysis of markers and intervention targets of multiple organ aging

Quantum interference in chemical reactions was observed

Let’s follow us to understand these ten major developments one by one.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic situation has been highlighted by Chinese scientists

In the face of novel coronavirus pneumonia, scientists in China conscientiously implement the important speech of general secretary Xi Jinping on epidemic prevention and control and a series of important instructions and instructions, and have made a series of outstanding progress under the Central Committee’s response to the leading group of epidemic prevention work and the joint defense and joint control mechanism of the State Council. Important scientific support.

In terms of etiology and epidemiology, the new coronavirus strain was isolated and identified for the first time, and the whole genome sequence of the virus was shared with the World Health Organization, which laid the foundation for the rapid promotion of diagnostic technology and the development of drug vaccines; clarified the key mechanism of the invasion of cells by the new coronavirus; continuously deepened the research on the transmission route of the virus, and provided scientific and technological support for the optimization of prevention and control strategies; quantitative analysis The effect of prevention and control measures in China is evaluated.

In terms of detection reagent development and animal model, we rapidly developed new coronavirus diagnostic reagent and immune detection reagent at the beginning of the epidemic, which provided strong support for pathogen detection; we constructed animal models of mice and monkeys infected with new coronavirus, which provided support for drug screening, vaccine development and virus transmission mechanism research.

The novel coronavirus pneumonia has been revealed in clinical and drug treatment. In the absence of specific drugs, the combination of Chinese and Western medicine has been launched. The eight new national crown pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan has been launched. Three effective three Chinese medicines and Western medicine and other treatment methods have been screened out. It has been used and used by many countries. The structure of COVID-19 and key proteins has been analyzed, and a number of Chinese medicines have been identified. The scientific prevention and control programs, such as the establishment of shelter hospital, large-scale nucleic acid detection, big data tracking and traceability, were proposed to improve the treatment rate and cure rate, and reduce the infection rate and death rate.

In terms of vaccine and neutralizing antibody research and development, we have also carried out the research and development of inactivated vaccine, viral vector vaccine, protein subunit vaccine, nucleic acid vaccine, etc. adenovirus vector vaccine is the first to carry out phase 1 clinical trial in the world, inactivated vaccine is the first to carry out phase 3 clinical trial in the world, and has been approved to be put on the market with conditions; we have identified and created new vaccines targeting new coronavirus spike protein S and receptor binding domain RBD A series of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, the formation of anti-virus “cocktail” Chinese antibody combination program.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia has provided strong scientific support for our country to win the major strategic achievements in fighting against the new crown pneumonia epidemic through its unremitting efforts and selfless dedication.

Chang’e-5 realizes automatic lunar surface sampling and return for the first time

On November 24, the chang’e-5 probe was launched at Wenchang space launch site in Hainan Province, and was directly launched into the Earth Moon transfer orbit by the long March-5 carrier rocket. Since then, the probe has gone through the flight stages of Earth Moon transfer, near moon braking, circumlunar flight, lunar landing, lunar sampling and packaging, lunar take-off, lunar orbit rendezvous and docking and sample transfer, lunar earth incident, lunar earth transfer and reentry recovery During the 23 day period, the chang’e-5 lander with lunar samples landed safely in the predetermined area of Siziwang Banner, Inner Mongolia. Xi Jinping, chairman of the CPC Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission, called on behalf of the Party Central Committee, the State Council and the Central Military Commission to congratulate the Chang’e five mission.

As a space system project with the highest complexity and the largest technological span in China, chang’e-5 has completed many major technological breakthroughs in China’s space history for the first time, such as the sampling and packaging of extraterrestrial objects, the first surface take-off of extraterrestrial objects, the first unmanned lunar orbit rendezvous and docking and sample transfer, the first lunar to ground incident and high-speed reentry of lunar samples back to earth, and finally achieved the goal of China’s space mission The first sampling return of extraterrestrial objects. The success of chang’e-5 lunar surface automatic sampling and return mission marks the successful completion of the three-step plan of China’s lunar exploration project, which is a big step forward for China’s aerospace industry and will contribute to deepening human’s scientific understanding of the origin of the moon and the evolution history of the solar system.

“Striver” set a new record for China’s manned deep diving

The development of “striver” all sea deep manned submersible is a major task in China’s “13th five year plan” deep-sea key technology and equipment field, which was initiated in 2016. In June 2020, “striver” completed the assembly integration and pool test. In July 2020, the “striver” completed the first stage of sea trials, with a total of 17 dives and a maximum depth of 4548 meters. On October 10, 2020, the “striver” set sail for the Mariana Trench to carry out the second stage of sea trial, during which a total of 13 dives were completed, of which 11 people and 24 people participated in eight deep diving tests with a depth of more than 10000 meters. At 8:12 on November 10, 2020, the “striver” set a record of 10909 meters of China’s manned deep diving depth.

China Shipbuilding Institute 702 is the leading unit in the development of “striver”. It has played a core role in the overall design, key technology research and development, integrated construction and test verification of the submersible. It has established an independent design technology system for all sea deep manned deep submergence equipment, constructed a stable, reliable, high standard, standardized test, detection and application system, and further promoted the development of the submersible Major breakthroughs have been made in the overall design and optimization, system debugging and simulation, deep-sea operation and other key technologies of the submersible. For the first time in the world, the preparation and welding technology of high-strength and high toughness titanium alloy materials has been conquered, and the new curing and forming process of 10000 meter buoyancy materials has been independently controlled. The core technology level of submersible power, thruster, underwater acoustic communication, intelligent control, etc. has been further improved.

”As the only manned deep submergence equipment in the world that can carry three people to and fro the whole sea for many times at the same time, the success of its development and sea trial has significantly improved the independent innovation level of China’s deep-sea equipment technology, enabled China to enter the deepest part of the world’s oceans to carry out scientific exploration and research, and reflected China’s comprehensive strength in the field of marine high technology It is an important milestone in the exploration of deep-sea science and technology in China.

Revealing the key steps of human genetic material transfer

DNA replication is the basis for the accurate transmission of human genetic material between cells. The specific process of identifying the initiation site of DNA replication in higher organisms is not clear, which also hinders people’s understanding of the mechanism of carcinogenesis and development to a certain extent.

Li Guohong’s team from the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators have revealed a fine mechanism for the recognition and regulation of DNA replication initiation sites. This study found that histone variant H2A. Z can promote the dimethylation of the twentieth amino acid of histone H4 by binding to histone methyltransferase suv420h1. The H2A. Z nucleosome with dimethylation can further recruit replication initiation site recognition proteins, thus helping to recognize DNA replication initiation sites. This study further found that the replication initiation site regulated by h2a.z-suv420h1-h4k20me2 pathway has strong replication activity, and tends to be activated in the early stage of replication. After destroying this regulatory mechanism in cancer cells, DNA replication and cell growth were inhibited. After destroying the regulatory mechanism in T cells, the immune activation of T cells was also inhibited.

This study describes a novel epigenetic regulation mechanism of DNA replication mediated by H2A. Z, which provides a new perspective for understanding the recognition of DNA replication initiation sites in higher organisms, and makes an important contribution to solving the long-standing problem of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation site selection.

Transparent ferroelectric single crystals with ultra-high voltage electrical properties have been developed

Relaxor ferroelectric single crystal [Pb (MG1 / 3Nb2 / 3) o3-pbtio3, PMN-PT] has been widely used in ultrasonic imaging, sonar equipment and MEMS due to its excellent piezoelectric effect. However, since its discovery for more than 20 years, there has been no new breakthrough in piezoelectric properties, and due to the existence of ferroelectric domain walls, its light transmittance is low, which can not meet the current development needs of piezoelectric devices with multi-function and high sensitivity

Professor Xu Zhuo’s research team of Xi’an Jiaotong University revealed the origin of the high voltage effect of relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, and developed SM doped PMN-PT single crystal. Its piezoelectric properties exceed 4000 PC / N, which is twice as high as that of undoped single crystal. On this basis, by adjusting the domain structure, the ferroelectric domain wall which can scatter light in the single crystal is eliminated. For the first time, high voltage and high light transmittance are obtained simultaneously in PMN-PT single crystal, which breaks through the international problem that the two are difficult to coexist for a long time. The piezoelectric coefficient of LiNbO3 is 100 times higher than that of the existing transparent piezoelectric single crystal LiNbO3, and the electro-optic coefficient is up to 40 times higher than that of the existing transparent piezoelectric single crystal LiNbO3. This kind of transparent ferroelectric single crystal can greatly improve the imaging resolution of photoacoustic imaging system in the diagnosis of breast cancer, melanoma and blood diseases. It also provides a new key material for the development of high-performance electro-optic modulator, optical phased array and quantum optical devices. This kind of single crystal material with excellent electro-optic, acousto-optic and acousto-optic-electrical coupling effect is expected to open up more new application fields.

2020 Everest elevation measurement

The height of Mt. Everest has long been concerned by the whole world. Accurate determination of the height of Mt. Everest and its publication to the world show the comprehensive strength and scientific and technological level of the country. In the 2020 Everest elevation survey, the Chinese team of scientists has comprehensively applied a variety of modern surveying and mapping technologies to achieve a number of major technological innovations and breakthroughs, and achieved the highest accuracy of the Everest elevation results in history.

For the first time, Beidou satellite positioning technology and domestic surveying equipment played the main role in the height survey of Mt. Everest, and the application of domestic surveying equipment made a major breakthrough. It is the first time to complete the ground gravity survey of the summit, and obtain the gravity survey results of the first summit in human history, which is helpful to improve the accuracy of the elevation survey of Mt. Everest. The team of scientists overcame the extreme weather and harsh environment in the Everest region, and for the first time achieved a historic breakthrough in aerial gravity, optical and laser remote sensing measurement of 12700 square kilometers at the top of the Everest and its surrounding area, filling in the gap of gravity data in the Everest region and greatly improving the accuracy of high-range measurement of the Everest. Compared with the elevation survey of Mt. Qomolangma in 2005, the geoid accuracy of Mt. Qomolangma has been improved by 300%. China and Nepal scientists team to carry out scientific and technological cooperation, the first time to establish the Mount Everest geoid based on the global elevation datum. For the first time, the Mount Everest’s snow surface elevation of 8848.86 meters was determined for the first time in history. The president Xi Jinping and Nepal President Bhandari exchanged letters with each other, announcing the latest elevation of Mount Qomolangma, and won wide acclaim from the international community. . In addition, the abundant observation data obtained from the survey will provide valuable and detailed first-hand information for the ecological environment protection and restoration, natural resource management, geological research and investigation, crustal movement monitoring, climate change and glacial and frozen soil research in the area.

Paleogenomics reveals the evolution and migration history of Chinese population in recent ten thousand years

In the field of international paleogenomics, there is a lack of paleogenomics research on the prehistoric population in East Asia, especially in China. Fu qiaomei’s research team, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for the first time carried out the largest, large-scale and systematic paleogenomic research on prehistoric people in southern and Northern China. Through cutting-edge experimental methods, we successfully obtained the genomes of 25 individuals 9500-4200 years ago and 1 individual 300 years ago from 11 sites in southern and Northern China, revealing the characteristics of Chinese people since 9500 The pattern of differentiation between the north and the south, the continuity of the main body and the history of migration and integration.

The study found that the main population in the South and north of China had been divided 9500 years ago, but the evolution of the same period population in the South and north of China was basically continuous, and was not affected by the obvious foreign population. The migration interaction mainly occurred among the populations in East Asia. In addition, it is clear that the South Island language group, represented by Taiwan Island aborigines and widely distributed in the Pacific Islands, originated from the coastal areas of southern China It can be traced back to 8400 years ago. This achievement fills in the important information gap of heredity, evolution and adaptation of prehistoric human in the East, especially in China, and makes an important scientific contribution to clarify the formation process of the Chinese nation and to revise the evolution model of the population in southern East Asia.

Big data depicts the earth’s 300 million year history of biodiversity evolution with the highest accuracy so far

The origin and evolution of life is one of the top ten scientific mysteries in the world. More than 99% of the living organisms on the earth have been extinct. Reconstructing the changing history of the earth’s biodiversity through fossil records is one of the most important ways to understand the current situation and future trend of biodiversity. However, due to the low temporal resolution and coarse biological classification, it is impossible to accurately identify sudden major biological evolution events and provide important reference for the study of modern earth ecosystem evolution.

Shen Shuzhong and fan junxuan of Nanjing University, together with experts at home and abroad, created a large-scale international database, independently developed artificial intelligence algorithms, made a breakthrough by using “tianhe-2” supercomputer, and obtained the world’s first high-precision Paleozoic marine biodiversity evolution curve of more than 300 million years, with a time resolution more than 400 times higher than that of similar international studies. The new curve accurately depicts several major biological extinction, recovery and radiation events in the process of the evolution of the earth’s biodiversity, and reveals the synergistic relationship between the change of biodiversity at that time and atmospheric CO2 content and global climate change. This research will promote the revolution of the whole evolutionary paleontology research.

In depth analysis of markers and intervention targets of multiple organ aging

With the increasing degree of population aging, in-depth study of aging and scientific response to population aging is a major national demand in the new era. Focusing on the core scientific issues of aging mechanism and intervention, Liu Guanghui research group and Qujing research group of Institute of zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhang Weiqi research group of Beijing Institute of genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Tang Fulao research group of Peking University jointly tackle key problems, and use the interdisciplinary method to reveal new biomarkers and mechanisms of mammalian multi organ aging at the systematic level Adjustable target.

In the aspect of aging mechanism analysis, it is found that the imbalance of redox pathway homeostasis is the main molecular feature of primate ovarian aging, which provides a new biomarker for evaluating ovarian aging and female fertility decline, and provides a new idea for looking for measures to delay ovarian aging and developing intervention strategies for related diseases. In the aspect of aging intervention, it is clarified that caloric restriction (“Qifen satiety”) can delay the aging of multiple organs by regulating the immune and inflammatory pathways in various tissues of the body, revealing the scientific relationship between metabolic intervention, immune response and healthy life span. These research results deepen people’s understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity of organ aging, and lay an important foundation for the establishment of early warning and scientific coping strategies for aging and aging related diseases.

Quantum interference in chemical reactions was observed

The process of chemical reaction is accompanied by complex quantum mechanical phenomena, but it is usually difficult to be observed directly, so the essence of chemical reaction is difficult to get a thorough understanding.

Yang Xueming, Zhang Donghui, Sun Zhigang and Xiao Chunlei, academicians of Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, provided a research example. They found that in the H + HD → H2 + D reaction, the backscattering of the product H2 (V ‘= 2, J’ = 3) exhibits a significant oscillation (where V ‘is the vibrational quantum number and j’ is the rotational quantum number) in the collision energy range of 1.9 ~ 2.2 ev. Through the analysis of topological theory, it is found that there are two different reaction paths, and the oscillation is caused by the quantum mechanical interference between the two paths. The results show that the quantum geometric phase effect still exists at lower energy and can be observed. This is very similar to the well-known AHARONOV Bohm effect, which clearly reveals the quantum nature of chemical reactions.

Read more: Nature: the scientific progress to be expected in 2020 Ministry of science and technology: the annual per capita R & D funds of Chinese R & D personnel will increase to 500000 yuan in 2020 Ministry of science and technology: by 2016, China’s “unicorn” enterprises have exceeded 130 Ministry of science and technology: the per capita green space area of global cities has expanded by 70% in 20 years Top 1 trillion yuan Ministry of science and technology: 2015 national innovation index report – information chart people’s Bank of China: questionnaire survey report on urban depositors in the first quarter of 2019 Profit growth of Industrial Enterprises above national scale by 16.2% people’s Bank of China: report on China’s monetary policy implementation in Q1, 2018 (with download attached) Deloitte: global retail power in 2017 PwC & RET: Interpretation of China’s culture, tourism and real estate data in 2017

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