The following is the Top 10 breakthrough technologies in the world From MIT Technology Review recommended by recordtrend.com. And this article belongs to the classification: Life data.
On February 24, MIT science and Technology Review released the 2021 “top 10 breakthrough technologies” list in Yuhang future science and Technology City, Hangzhou. Gpt-3 language model, new coronal mRNA vaccine, tiktok recommendation algorithm and other technologies that have aroused heated discussion in the field of artificial intelligence are on the list.
In addition, this year’s list also includes green hydrogen energy, multi skill AI, remote technology, lithium metal battery, digital contact tracking, ultra-high precision positioning and data trust.
Liu Jiong, China’s co publisher of MIT Technology Review, said on the spot of the release of the list, “whether it’s scientific and technological talents or scientific and technological companies, their core cannot be separated from breakthrough innovative technology.”
He recalled that since 2001, MIT Technology Review has selected the “top 10 breakthrough technologies” every year. In 2009, Siri, which was not acquired by Apple at that time, was selected; in 2013, “deep learning” was included in the list, and the outbreak period of 3-5 years was accurately given. In addition, the list also accurately predicted the rise of brain computer interface, smart watch, cancer gene therapy and other popular technologies.
“Although some of the top ten breakthrough technologies selected every year have not been widely used in those years, or even in the early stage of development, many of the breakthrough technologies that have been selected are standing on the cusp of commercial application after time’s tempering and confirmation.” Liu Jiong said.
MIT Technology Review was founded in 1899. It has been focusing on the development and commercialization of emerging technologies for a long time. Since 2001, it has selected the “top 10 breakthrough technologies” of that year every year. This year is the 20th anniversary of the birth of the list.
The following is a detailed interpretation of the list:
Significance: the effectiveness of the new mRNA vaccine is about 95%, which has never been put into clinical application before, which may bring great changes in the field of medicine.
Main researchers: biontech, green light biotechnology, Moderna, strand therapeutics
Globally, the new coronavirus has killed more than 2 million people, and several childhood friends of drew Weisman, a mRNA researcher, have died.
Now, several different types of new coronal vaccines have been put on the market. The new coronal vaccines injected in the United States are completely dependent on the vaccines of Moderna and the vaccines jointly developed by biontech and Pfizer. The above two vaccines have one thing in common: they all use mRNA technology.
The effective mechanism of mRNA vaccine is completely different from that of traditional vaccine. Traditional vaccine uses live virus, dead virus, or part of virus shell to train human immune system. After injected into the body, muscle cells absorb mRNA and produce some viral protein. The immune system will produce antibodies and T cells in time to resist the invasion of the virus.
Before that, although the research on mRNA has been for 20 years, it was not until last year that mRNA was first used for drugs entering the market.
Significance: learning large-scale computer model of natural language is a big step towards building AI that can understand human beings and interact with human world.
Main researchers: openai, Google, Facebook
After alphago of deepmind and deepblue of IBM, gpt-3 has become the most imaginative existence in AI field.
Gpt-3 is a “large language model” created by openai, a research laboratory in San Francisco. The so-called “large-scale language model” refers to an algorithm that uses deep learning to train words and phrases together through thousands of books and a large number of texts on the Internet. Gpt-3 will be officially released in 2020. It can imitate human writing text, and its fidelity is amazing.
In the eyes of many people, this capability of gpt-3 is a milestone on the road to real machine intelligence.
Significance: in the face of the abuse of personal data, data trust can help better manage data.
Main researcher: Google sidewalk Labs
Maturity: 2-3 years
In the era of data, while people’s life is more convenient, privacy and security issues are increasingly prominent. So, is there an organization that can defend people’s data rights just as trade unions defend labor rights? And, like doctors, can help people make wise decisions based on personal data management?
Perhaps, data trust is a feasible solution.
In law, trust refers to the trust of the trustee, the trustor from its own interests, the assets to the trustee management behavior. In data trust, the trustee will manage the data or data rights of a group of people. Just as doctors have the responsibility to act in accordance with the interests of patients, data trustees are responsible for managing the data or data rights of clients. In theory, data trust allows users to exercise their rights as data producers.
Data trust is not the only solution to the problems of privacy and security caused by data, but it is necessary to control data and let data share for the benefit of human data governance.
Lithium metal battery
Great significance: lithium metal batteries have high energy density, fast charging speed, and are safe and reliable, making electric vehicles as convenient and cheap as gasoline vehicles.
Main researchers: quantum scape, Carnegie Mellon University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Maturity: 5 years
Battery technology is a big problem that restricts the development of electric vehicle industry.
At present, lithium-ion battery is widely used in electric vehicles. This kind of battery is expensive, bulky, low energy density, and its liquid electrolyte is easy to catch fire in collision. A series of disadvantages of batteries are reflected in electric vehicles: high price, low battery life, slow charging, and there are also potential safety hazards, which are the reasons why many car owners flinch from electric vehicles.
Obviously, to make electric vehicles more competitive than gasoline vehicles, we need a breakthrough battery to make up for these defects.
Quantum scape, a Silicon Valley start-up, claims to have developed a new lithium metal battery, which uses solid electrolyte (ceramic) to overcome these shortcomings of traditional lithium-ion batteries.
Digital contact tracking
Significance: without access to personal location information, mobile phone users can know whether they are in contact with people infected with new coronavirus.
Main researchers: apple, Google, etc
In 2020, COVID-19, which is experiencing all over the world, has attracted people’s attention by “digital contact tracking”.
Under COVID-19, technology provides a new way for public health investigators to trace the whereabouts of infected persons – Digital contact tracking. Using this technology, health investigators no longer need to rely on the memory of patients to track their whereabouts, which reduces the pressure on disease monitoring.
This technology is called “exposure notification” for practical application. For the digital contact tracking system, the programmer completed the establishment and operation within a few weeks, and shared the code with open source to ensure that users from all over the world, apple and Android can use this function.
Specifically, “exposure notification” does not track the user’s location, but uses Bluetooth to anonymously connect the mobile devices running the same application nearby, so as to ensure the anonymity and privacy of health data. As of January 2021, MIT Technology Review has learned that there are 77 “exposure notification” applications used by governments around the world.
Ultra high precision positioning
Great significance: when the positioning technology is accurate to millimeter level or higher, it will create a new industry.
Main researchers: Institute of aerospace information innovation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, coldquanta
The accuracy of the global positioning system is increasing from “meter” to “centimeter” level, which will provide greater support for the safe driving of the autopilot, delivery robot, and so on.
The beidou-3 global navigation satellite system, which will be officially launched in 2020, can capture the position changes of several meters on the ground in real time, and even its processing accuracy can reach millimeter level. The system has been used to detect the subtle changes in the surface of landslide prone areas in China, and predicted that Hunan Province will encounter the most serious landslide in decades in that year, enabling villagers to evacuate ahead of time. Experts from the Institute of aerospace information, Chinese Academy of Sciences said that if the satellite positioning accuracy is still at the level of meters or decimeters, it is impossible to achieve this.
In fact, the further improvement of Beidou and global positioning system (GPS) accuracy requires ground facilities to improve positioning accuracy. In the current widely used methods, one is real time kinematic (RTK) positioning, the accuracy can reach less than 3cm; the other is precise point positioning (PPP), which can also reach centimeter level accuracy. In addition, experts from the Institute of aerospace information of the Chinese Academy of Sciences said: “we are developing ppp-rtk technology. Combining the advantages of the two technologies, it is expected to be put into use in a few years.”
Significance: during the epidemic period in 2020, changes in the two important services of health care and education have had a huge impact on people’s overall well-being and quality of life. But the most important change is not the technology itself, but our behavior, because teleconferencing and telemedicine already exist.
Main researchers: snapask, homework help, byju’s, Hong Kong, China
In April 2020, the global epidemic will reach its peak, schools in more than 170 countries will be closed, and the number of students affected will reach 1.6 billion. Traditional schools in most parts of the world have switched to online teaching mode, and Asia is no exception. For example, snapask, an online tutoring company in Hong Kong, China, has seen a surge in user demand.
At present, snapask has more than 3.5 million users in nine Asian countries, double the number before the outbreak. Timothy Yu, who founded snapask in 2015, said, “the number of users we needed to reach in five years before was only one year due to the epidemic.”
Multi skill AI
Great significance: “multimodal” system can solve more complex problems, so that robots can truly communicate and cooperate with human beings.
Main researchers: Allen Institute of artificial intelligence, University of North Carolina, openai
Maturity: 3-5 years
At the end of 2012, artificial intelligence scientists first figured out how to make neural networks “have vision”. Later, they also mastered how to make neural networks imitate human reasoning, hearing, language and writing. Although artificial intelligence has become very similar to or even surpasses human beings in completing specific tasks, it still lacks the “flexibility” of human brain, that is, human brain can learn skills in one situation and apply them to another.
For example, although alphago can beat the best go players in the world, it can’t extend this strategy beyond the chessboard and can’t understand and adapt to the changing external world.
In addition, the design of artificial intelligence system is to do only one thing at a time. For example, computer vision and audio recognition algorithms can perceive things, but can not use language to describe them; natural language model can manipulate text, but text is separated from any sensory reality.
In this regard, the process of children’s growth is a good example. Children understand the world by “perceiving” and “talking about” the world. When they begin to associate words with scenery, sound and other sensory information, they can describe more and more complex phenomena and dynamics, and build a complex world model, which can help them to control the unfamiliar environment and integrate words into the world New knowledge and experience.
Inspired by the process of children’s growth, if we combine senses with language, and let artificial intelligence have a more human like way to collect and process information, can it develop an understanding of the world? The answer is yes. These “multimodal” systems, which can acquire human intelligence at the same time, should generate a more powerful artificial intelligence and be easier to adapt to new situations and solve new problems.
Tiktok recommendation algorithm
Significance: tiktok can not only accurately recommend videos of interest to users, but also help them expand new areas of intersection with them through recommendation algorithm.
Main researcher: tiktok
Tiktok is one of the most attractive and growing social media platforms in the world. So far, tiktok has more than 2.6 billion downloads worldwide and 100 million users in the United States. Tiktok’s unique way of discovering and delivering content is its attractive “secret weapon.”.
Tiktok will mix the videos of online Red bloggers with those of new bloggers on the “recommend for you” page, and then reward high-quality creative content with the number of views. In this way, more new bloggers’ videos will be pushed to the majority of users.
Generally speaking, tiktok’s skills of enhancing user stickiness are becoming more and more “perfect”. It can not only accurately recommend videos of interest to users, but also help them expand new areas of intersection with them through recommendation algorithms.
Green hydrogen energy
Great significance: Green hydrogen is a green carbon neutral energy, an expansion of renewable wind and solar energy, and may become the core fuel of low-carbon in the future.
Main researchers: ThyssenKrupp Group of green hydrogen alliance, International Energy Agency and McKinsey consulting company
Most of the hydrogen is produced by combining natural gas with high-temperature steam, which is called gray hydrogen. The cost of green hydrogen produced by water electrolysis is about three times that of gray hydrogen.
With the continuous decline of wind and solar energy costs, and the emergence of economies of scale of green hydrogen production, the cost of hydrogen production is expected to decline significantly. With the development of carbon capture technology, more hydrogen can be extracted from natural gas without a large amount of carbon dioxide emission. Green hydrogen is also likely to become a low-carbon core fuel in the future.
On the one hand, hydrogen is used as fuel cell, and the reverse reaction of water electrolysis is used to generate water and electricity through the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, without producing nitrogen oxides. On the other hand, by combining hydrogen with carbon, liquid synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that are easier to handle than hydrogen can be produced. This kind of liquid fuel is cleaner and can replace gasoline or diesel.
Hydrogen can also be used to store electricity produced by renewable energy, which can be converted back into electricity and fed into the grid when the wind is weakened, clouds block the sun or electricity demand increases.
According to the prediction of the International Energy Agency, by 2050, hydrogen will provide more than 10% of the global energy demand and produce more than 11 million gigawatt hours of energy per year.
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