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The following is the 2020 genome recognition Industry Research Report From China Institute of electronic technology standardization recommended by recordtrend.com. And this article belongs to the classification: professional knowledge, research report.
Brief introduction of genome recognition technology
Genes are the genetic information controlling biological characters, which are usually carried by DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequences. Genes can also be regarded as basic genetic units, that is, a functional DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid) sequence. The growth of all things in the world follows the law of life center, controlled by the genetic code of life – genome, which is the most basic law of life science. The genome begins with the formation of fertilized eggs containing 3 billion base pairs, which determines and affects human life, aging and death. To reveal the mysteries of life, we must start from the genome, run through the law of life center, and carry out dynamic and systematic research.
“Human genome project” is an important step for human beings to explore their own mysteries. It is another great project in the history of human science after “Manhattan Project” and “Apollo moon project”. Its purpose is to decode life, to understand the origin of life, to understand the law of growth and development of life, to understand the causes of differences between species and individuals, to understand the mechanism of diseases and life phenomena such as longevity and aging, so as to provide scientific basis for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. China has undertaken 1% of the tasks of the “human genome project”, that is, sequencing about 30 million base pairs on the short arm of human chromosome 3. China is the only developing country to participate in this research program.
In recent years, the human genome project (HGP) has spawned more and more mature tools such as sequencer and mass spectrometer. Combined with the high-resolution imaging system, people can not only advance the interpretation of life from the micron and nanogram scale to the microscopic observation scale of life at the molecular and atomic level, but also follow the life center principle, from genome to proteome and then to multi omics, so as to realize the multi-scale, multi-dimensional, multi-modal, all-round and full cycle sea view from micro view to macro view and from life to death Volume panoramic life big data interpretation and research.
Genome recognition is a kind of biometric identification technology, which can identify specific DNA fragments with biological characteristics through gene sequencing, bioinformatics analysis and other steps. Genome recognition has the characteristics of uniqueness, stability and non replicability. It has been highly recognized by the public security and judicial fields, and is widely used in individual recognition and paternity testing. In recent years, with the rapid development of sequencing technology, China has developed from the first generation sequencing technology to high-throughput sequencing technology with independent intellectual property rights.
Since Sanger sequencing method came into being, the demand for higher throughput and faster sequencing method has become more urgent. High throughput sequencing technology emerged as a revolutionary technology. Compared with Sanger method, it can quickly output accurate and low-cost genetic information, and can be applied to small target regions or the whole genome through a variety of methods, so that researchers can study and better understand health and disease. The emergence of high-throughput sequencing technology has changed almost all fields of biology, agriculture and medicine, and is widely used in the analysis of genetic variation. With the decline of sequencing cost, the improvement of efficiency and the innovation of technology, gene sequencing will enter the rapid development track.
Compared with whole genome sequencing, the method of selectively capturing genomic regions from DNA samples before sequencing (targeted high-throughput sequencing) makes it possible to obtain higher throughput at lower cost. In targeted high-throughput sequencing, short tandem repeats (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites are the main target genome regions. PCR amplification and hybridization are commonly used to capture them.
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