The following is the 2021 talent capital trend report From Boss direct employment recommended by recordtrend.com. And this article belongs to the classification: research report, Online recruitment.
In the recently released “2021 talent capital trend report”, the Institute has set the new theme of this year as: reshaping the era – rebuilding in ruins, and creating new life.
In this year’s report, we focus on the idea of “what is broken, what is the new order and what should be done”, and continue to put forward eight talent capital trends in 2021 from the multi-level perspective of “employment market organizational development personal development”.
01. Breaking and reshaping: looking for a new balance
1.1 survival competition: recruitment requirements differentiation, further intensified
The impact caused by mutation will eventually pass, and the employment market will also usher in a new balance. The challenge for organizations and workers is how to find their own position and direction in the new balance.
Data show that from the perspective of the whole industry, in 2020, the average recruitment salary of enterprises is 8021 yuan, down 0.8% year on year, and the median recruitment salary is 6216 yuan; in 2020, the average expected salary of active job seekers is 7999 yuan, down 4.8% year on year, and the median expected salary is 5996 yuan. This is the first time in several years that the expected salary of job seekers is lower than the recruitment salary.
Due to the decline of recruitment demand, the job market in 2020 is obviously crowded. Boss direct employment “2021 job demand trend survey” shows that only 20.3% of the users said that the epidemic basically has no impact on their work, “forced job hopping” and “dare not job hopping” have become a pair of contradictory symbiotic themes in the employment market in 2020.
In 2020, both the recruitment requirements and the internal competition of job seekers will be further intensified. Boss direct employment “2021 enterprise talent demand trend survey” shows that 54.3% of enterprises focus on improving the requirements for market and sales candidates.
The strategic focus of the enterprise is on five links: revenue, management, R & D, service and organization development. 62.5% of the enterprises think that the next thing to be strengthened in organization and management is to “improve the ability and recruitment level of employees”.
In the first quarter of 2020, all industries are urgently replenishing talents, and Internet technology jobs are in great demand, with the demand ratio reaching 11.0%, 2.8% higher than the annual average. Among the five major urban agglomerations, Beijing Tianjin Hebei Urban Agglomeration accounted for nearly 20% of the demand for technical talents in the first quarter.
Since the era of mobile Internet dividend, technology research and development has become a typical representative of high paid jobs. We find that within the high paid group of technology R & D, competition differentiation is also prominent.
1.2 flexibility + steadiness: the requirements of the post epidemic Era
With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the increase of external environmental uncertainty and the upgrading of competition, in the post epidemic era, the seemingly opposite characteristics of flexibility and robustness begin to become indispensable.
1.3 seeking common ground while reserving differences: a new challenge for urban talent competition
According to the four dimensions of environmental change, environmental factors, talent quality and job hunting preference, the talent attraction index model is established. The results show that Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen are the top three cities in talent attraction, while Hangzhou, Nanjing and Chengdu are the top three cities in talent attraction.
Since the start of the “competition for talents” in 2017, the attraction of talents in various regions has been concentrated in the fields of new infrastructure, high-end industries, financial trade and modern service industry, with the same goals and little policy difference.
However, in the case of limited talent pool and fierce competition, it is impossible to achieve the goal by simple policy means. Therefore, we suggest that all localities should make a detailed analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of urban development and talent situation, not follow suit and issue similar policies, but pay attention to the locality, practicability, operability and incentive of policies.
02. The game of talent structure: the tide of migration gives birth to a new focus of competition
2.1 adjustment of labor force structure: the game between new frontline cities and frontline cities
In 2020, the average talent flow rate of new first tier cities relative to first tier cities is 1.20, which is the highest level since the “talent war” in 2017, and the net talent inflow scale is 12.1% higher than that in 2019.
In Q1 and Q2 of 2020, under the influence of the epidemic, the first tier cities have strict control, higher recruitment requirements and lower recruitment demand, especially after the Spring Festival. The talent flow rate to the new first tier cities is 17.4% and 20.9% higher than that in 2019. After the epidemic is controlled, the talent flow rate of Q3 and Q4 tends to be stable, slightly higher than that in the same period of 2019.
To some extent, the epidemic has promoted the redistribution of talent capital between the first tier cities and the new first tier cities.
For a long time, the talents with higher education have been the main objects of contention. We find that people with higher education level are still more likely to choose first tier cities, but new first tier cities are narrowing the gap.
In 2020, the relative mobility rate of doctoral degree population is 0.96, that is to say, in turn, it will flow from the new first tier cities to the first tier cities. The average relative mobility rates of master’s degree and bachelor’s degree population are 1.06 and 1.10 respectively, and a small outflow from the first tier cities. The mobility rates of people with high school education and below are 1.25 and 1.23 respectively.
Another interesting aspect is that according to the data tracking of boss direct employment research institute, 39.4% of the people who left the first tier cities from the second half of 2017 to the beginning of 2019 returned to the first tier cities at the end of 2019. This talent game between first tier cities and new first tier cities will continue.
2.2 survival competition: the tide of returning home under the epidemic situation
In 2020, the proportion of people flowing out from the first tier cities to the third, fourth and fifth tier cities accounted for 28.4% of the total outflow of people from the first tier cities, with a year-on-year increase of 3.3%, especially in the first and second quarters. Compared with the first tier cities, the talent flow rate of the third, fourth and fifth tier cities was 1.33, which was also significantly higher than that in 2019.
Among the four first tier cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, the number of people flowing from Guangzhou to the third, fourth and fifth tier cities accounted for the largest proportion of the total number of people flowing out of the city, accounting for 21.2%; due to population control, industrial dispersion and the impact of the epidemic situation, the number of people flowing to the third, fourth and fifth tier cities accounted for the second, accounting for 17.2%; Shanghai and Shenzhen accounted for a relatively small proportion.
So what kind of people choose to return home?
In terms of age, compared with 2019, the proportion of workers over 25 years old returning to the third, fourth and fifth tier cities shows an increasing trend, of which the proportion of people aged 30-34 increases the most (2.6%), followed by those aged 25-29 (2.3%).
In terms of educational background, the proportion of people with secondary technical school / technical school, high school and below high school educational background returning to their hometown increased, and the proportion of people with below high school educational background returning to their hometown increased most significantly (3.6%).
In terms of work experience, workers with rich experience in the workplace are more likely to return to their hometown for development, and those with more than 10 years of experience account for the largest increase (5.5%).
2.3 cross flow of regions and occupations: Cultivation of diversity of human capital
At the present stage, compared with the attractiveness of occupation and industry, the difference of city itself has not reached the degree of significant impact on the inflow of talent structure, but it has shown a trend of differentiation.
Internet technology and life service are the most mobile occupations. The former benefits from the strong versatility, high salary level and rapid development of the industry, while the latter stems from the low threshold and frequent job hopping.
As one of the industries most severely affected by the epidemic, tourism has become the industry with the weakest mobility and the lowest stability among the eight occupations.
From the perspective of floating population size, industry structure and mobility, Hangzhou has been closer to the characteristics of first tier cities, and the cross city mobility of various occupations is quite different; the cross city mobility of various occupations in Guangzhou is quite different, especially in the attraction and cultivation of digital technical talents.
03. Build skill network: create compound interest growth for talent capital
3.1 compound interest effect: a new interactive relationship between skill and occupation
Under the impact of the epidemic and the accelerated digital transformation of enterprises, employers’ requirements for talent quality have increased significantly, and their requirements for vocational skills have changed sharply. Talent selection and evaluation has changed from “condition driven” to “skill driven”.
With the blurring of industry boundary, the demand for compound talents is sinking from senior management and technical posts to middle-level posts, even some entry-level posts and new occupations. This kind of compound talents in the workplace is called “generalist” by researchers.
From the perspective of post, for professional and technical posts with hard skills as the core drive, the probability of composite skilled talents getting employer feedback is more than 60% higher than that of single skilled job seekers. In 2020, more than 50% of the senior positions of directors and above require candidates to master more than 10 vocational skills, which can be described as a real “decathlon”.
Skills and occupations are changing from one-dimensional “demand relationship” to two-way or even multi-dimensional “interaction relationship”. Skills are no longer scattered, but form a dynamic network.
3.2 deep penetration of Digitalization: number quotient and logical thinking become important meta skills
With the rapid development of the new generation of digital technology represented by artificial intelligence and 5g, the social productivity has been greatly improved. At present, digital technology is deeply integrated with almost all industries, gradually evolving from a tool to improve efficiency to a core driving force for innovation and development, from digital industrialization to industrial digitization.
The data shows that in 2020, among the 13 occupations including investment consultant, biopharmaceutical engineer, securities analyst and user operation manager, the number of jobs requiring digital skills will double.
In the era of digital economy, the three meta skills of reading and writing, number quotient and logical thinking have far-reaching significance for the all-round development of individuals.
3.3 anchor of human-computer competition: lifelong growth of quality skills
If digital skills and professional skills are the important conditions for the impact of high paid jobs, then quality-oriented skills affect everyone’s career development.
Deductive reasoning ability is the most important quality skill for employers in the past two years. In 2020, more than 50% of the posts require more than 3 points for this ability. Product manager, algorithm engineer, machine learning engineer, strategic consultant and other professional, deductive reasoning ability score generally more than 4.5 points. The underlying meta skill of this quality is logical ability. Problem sensitivity and inductive reasoning ability ranked second and third respectively.
At the same time, boss direct employment “2021 enterprise talent demand trend survey” shows that teamwork, interpersonal communication and coordination, pressure and emotional management are the three quality-oriented abilities employers most want candidates and employees to improve. For three consecutive years, these three items are among the top five employers’ demands, and they will receive a higher proportion of attention in 2020.
It has become one of the biggest challenges for organizations and individuals to really realize the coming of skill driven era and work hard to build skill network.
04. Improving the digital concept: the resonance point of organizational flexibility and talent growth
4.1 digital technology talent reserve: a moat against risk
In 2020, more and more enterprises begin to realize that digitization is an inevitable choice for the development of modern enterprises, so they begin to pay more attention to the construction and operation of digital system, and more actively use data to drive decision-making.
According to the data of boss direct employment research institute, the demand for core posts of digital construction, such as database administrator, data architect, cloud computing architect, will increase by 78% year on year in 2020, and the average recruitment salary will increase by 12% year on year.
In 2020, Beijing has the highest level of digital technology talent reserve in the country, and the proportion of talent demand is as high as 18.5%. Due to the huge base, the year-on-year growth rate of digital technology talent demand is also significantly lower than the national average, and the relative growth rate is relatively low. Affected by the epidemic, Wuhan’s digital technology talent demand relative growth rate is lower than the national level, while Foshan and Dongguan have achieved rapid growth.
4.2 digital concept: resonance point of organization and talent
In May 2020, McKinsey put forward an effective path to realize the complete digitalization of the enterprise within 90 days. From the perspective of organizational development, it can be roughly divided into three stages: “identifying growth points → deploying new models → improving organizational power”.
However, 90 days is obviously not enough to build a digital working mode and management decision-making mode from the organizational level to enhance the flexibility and pressure resistance of the organization. According to our survey, only 29.2% of enterprises said that “they have perfect flexible office and remote office system”.
Telecommuting is only a basic means to deal with “distance economy”, and a simple application of digital technology. The digital concept we emphasize focuses more on the development mentality of the organization and employees.
4.3 digitization is not omnipotent
Whether it’s enterprises that actively embrace digitalization or organizations that are resisting digitalization, it’s two sides of the coin.
The “energy” of digitization is reflected in speed, measurement and accuracy, which inevitably brings problems such as digital virus, lack of humanistic care, privacy leakage and so on. How to avoid these problems when enterprises complete the digital transformation will be a major issue in reshaping the era.
In the survey of boss direct employment, when asked “the most core factors affecting your choice of office style”, the top three factors are related to the efficiency improvement and cost reduction brought by digitalization, while the last two factors are related to the conflict between digitalization and personal and family life.
Intergenerational Management: from value proposition to emotional guidance
5.1 Value Evolution: what is a good job?
In the general social construction or stereotype, post-95 is difficult to manage, and there is a lot of evidence: high eyed, low handed, emotional vulnerability, not involved in work, lack of team spirit, poor interpersonal communication skills and so on.
However, the post-95s show some noteworthy characteristics. Different from the post-80s who grew up in the era of search engine, the post-95s are the first generation who grew up completely in the era of social media. The core difference is that the way young people acquire and shape social relationships has changed fundamentally.
The weight of working relationship in the social system has decreased, and post-95 people prefer to work that can not only stimulate interest, but also provide and realize personal significance.
According to the data, 64% of the post-95s believe that the sense of personal value in work is more important than the contribution of the organization; correspondingly, 67% of the post-95s value external recognition. The main change of post-95’s cognition of work value comes from the fact that they attach great importance to material rewards and work life balance, while it becomes less important to get social relationship rewards from work.
5.2 emotional guidance: the key proposition of post-95 management
Overprotection in the process of growing up, the reduction of real interpersonal communication, the high attention to “emotional safety”, the involution of survival competition and so on, are the important social reasons for the post-95 emotional instability and the lack of anti pressure ability.
The results show that there are many interesting differences among the post-85s, post-90s and post-95s in their demands for work experience. The post-95s have the highest demand for “paying attention to my emotional state”, but they are not very interested in challenging authority. At the same time, the post-95 express a clear demand for “timely positive feedback”, even if it is just a praise, it may also bring unexpected incentive effect.
Correct listening is just another key issue in intergenerational Management: who should managers listen to in the face of different demands? Listen to what employees say? How to understand? How to talk? How to make decisions?
As indigenous people in the Internet age, the post-95 generation is more receptive to information and more sensitive to emotions. The real challenge of intergenerational management comes from the different cognitive and processing paradigms of information and emotions. This is the battle between dial-up thinking and 5g thinking.
5.3 more humanistic management attribute: create personality cultivation atmosphere
On the whole, when people evaluate a job, they will pay attention to the following 10 factors: close and harmonious teamwork, flexible work arrangement, challenging and interesting work content, being able to learn new things, being able to participate in decision-making, good salary, good balance between life and work, diversity of work environment, great room for improvement, and timely positive attitude Feedback and recognition.
The existence of intergenerational differences and the change of appeal mode require the change of organization management mode. We believe that in today’s situation, the most important principle for better intergenerational management is to treat employees as human beings.
Good leadership focuses on stimulating individual potential and promoting “human development”, rather than unlimited pursuit of task management and organizational success. “Don’t be a tool person to complete tasks”, this kind of cognition is particularly strong in the post-95.
06. Grasp the context of knowledge economy
6.1 new stage of high end talent competition: industry starts “doctor’s war”
Under the trend of attaching more and more importance to knowledge and talents, enterprises and organizations should try to think about the overall strategic layout and talent culture from the perspective of knowledge as soon as possible. For most organizations, educational background is still an important means to select talents and improve human capital.
Data show that with the expansion of enterprise scale, the demand for higher education background also continues to rise. Among enterprises with more than 10000 employees, the proportion of Posts requiring at least bachelor’s degree has reached 34.7%, but in small and micro enterprises with less than 100 employees, the proportion is only about 15%.
According to the data of boss direct employment research institute, in 2020, the industry started a “doctor’s war”, and the demand scale for candidates with doctor’s degree increased by more than 71% year on year. Enterprises attach great importance to basic research and technological breakthrough to a new stage.
The demand for doctoral candidates in Internet technology, health care, manufacturing, education and training industries is among the top four. However, the proportion of demand for doctoral candidates in Internet industry is declining, and other fields begin to show stronger demand.
There are about 50000 to 60000 doctoral graduates in China every year, and the proportion of jobs requiring doctoral degree in the whole industry is usually below 0.01%. However, we observed that in 2020, the demand of pharmaceutical, energy / chemical / environmental protection, electronics / communication, Internet it and other knowledge intensive industries for doctoral candidates is 4-22 times higher than that of other industries, and the demand distribution is relatively stable throughout the year.
6.2 coopetition thinking: talent view in knowledge economy
With the increasingly fierce talent war, enterprises should try their best to avoid vicious competition. In fact, in the competition for talents, the relationship between enterprises is not a zero sum game, but a coexistence of competition and cooperation.
The competition and cooperation relationship of enterprises in the talent war can be understood from two aspects: expanding the talent cake and reasonable and orderly competition. On the one hand, there is a cooperative relationship between enterprises in improving the overall quality of talents and attracting more talents; on the other hand, the competition for talents is carried out within a reasonable and orderly range. For example, not excessive “bidding” leads to the rise of the overall labor cost of the industry, the decline of the actual cost performance of talents, and not “strictly guard against the flow of employees” should be the basic ethics of modern enterprises.
07. Rethinking the new concept of job hopping and talent retention
7.1 intergenerational difference of “work centrality”: it has become a fact that the younger you are, the more likely you are to change jobs
According to the data of boss direct employment research institute, there are great differences in the working hours of the first job among different generations. From the Post-70s to the post-00s, the average working time of the first job has been continuously shortened, from 84 months to 11 months, and the average working time of the first job after the post-95s is 15 months.
From the perspective of the change of average job hopping interval with age, the average job hopping interval of Post-70s to post-90s is decreasing, showing an obvious linear relationship.
On the one hand, with the rise of China’s economy, the main market players are extremely rich, and the scope of job choices of the younger generation is greatly broadened. With the continuous development of information technology, people can easily obtain massive recruitment information, and the developed public transportation greatly reduces the cost of cross regional recruitment and migration. The impact of physical distance on population flow is weakening.
On the other hand, the intergenerational differences in the cognition of the value of work also shorten the gap between young people’s job hopping. One of the most important cognitive differences comes from the cognition of “work centrality”.
It is found that the recognition of “work is the center of life” among the people born after 1985 is significantly reduced, as well as job satisfaction and organizational identity, followed by more frequent job hopping and career mobility.
7.2 gender differences in job hopping: development motivation affects stability
We chose people who were born between 1970 and 2000 to observe the average working hours of men and women in a job. The results show that, as a whole, the working hours of single job of both sexes decrease rapidly with the passage of the year of birth, but the average working hours of women in different generations are 3% – 16% longer than men.
We also found that with the decrease of age, the difference of job hopping interval is becoming smaller. The average job hopping interval of post-95 women is 15 months, while that of men is 13 months. In other words, young people are very fond of job hopping.
The data show that the probability of job hopping of both men and women increases first and then decreases, reaching the peak between 22 and 24 years old, but the peak of job hopping of women comes earlier than that of men, and the probability of job hopping is higher than that of men before 24 years old.
According to the survey results, we can see that, in contrast, men are more concerned about the income level, women are more concerned about the rising space, and people generally have age anxiety. One of the deeper reasons behind the data is that women have limited promotion space in the workplace and have to seize opportunities as much as possible.
7.3 Rethinking “talent retention”
From the macro level, we should continue to advocate young people to improve their work stability and not “leave their jobs passionately” because of trivial matters. From the meso and micro levels of organizations and individuals, improving the retention of talents and working for the same organization for a long time should be regarded as the result rather than the means. It is difficult to achieve good results by “Retaining for the sake of retention”. We can try the following mentality and means:
More accurate recognition of employee differences: plan from the beginning of the employee’s entry, rather than waiting for the employee to leave before reviewing;
Importance to human needs: good management focuses on stimulating human potential, attaching importance to human needs and promoting human development;
Cultivating an open mind: improving talent retention is a race between the growth speed of the organization, the value cognition of young people and technological progress.
Exploring women’s potential: a necessary means to enhance organizational human capital
8.1 it is difficult to break through the professional barriers: there is a general wage disadvantage in the female concentrated occupations
Women’s salary gap is mainly affected by the choice of positions, both subjective and passive factors.
Blue area: female practitioners accounted for less than 45% of the occupation. In this region, senior management, product and Internet technology positions have obvious salary advantages, but the proportion of women is generally low, and the proportion of women in technical positions is only 17.9%.
White area: the occupation field in which women account for 45% – 55%, and the gender distribution is relatively uniform. Among these occupations, only the financial category has a higher salary level than the overall average.
Red area: female practitioners accounted for more than 55% of the occupation. In these female dominated occupations, only consulting / translation / law related jobs are paid higher than the overall average. Among them, there are two major categories: personnel / Finance / administration and education and training. Female practitioners account for more than 70%, but the average salary is less than 7000 yuan.
8.2 grasp the breakthrough: the penetration rate of women in stem field is increasing year by year
Breaking through the gender stereotype of occupation and increasing the richness of occupation choice can reduce women’s income gap. In recent years, a clear breakthrough is in the field of digital technology.
With the increasing proportion of women studying stem majors (Science, technology, engineering, Mathematics), the proportion of women choosing digital technology related occupations is also increasing. According to the data of boss direct employment research institute, in the group of less than one year of work experience, fresh students and interns, the proportion of young women who expect to develop in the technology field is more than 25%. In the group of new employees in the workplace, the average expected salary of women is only 7.5% lower than that of men.
Over the years, a large number of studies have proved that there is no difference between women and men in academic achievement and professional performance in stem field.
In the digital economy era of talent shortage, attaching importance to women’s professional skills and fully exploiting their potential and leadership play a positive role in improving the accumulation and output of human capital.
8.3 women’s leadership growth: the proportion of senior managers continues to increase
According to the data, in 2020, women accounted for 29.3% of the managerial positions at the level of director and above, which was 4 percentage points higher than that in 2019. We find that although the proportion of female executives is increasing, there are still obvious “professional barriers” in the management positions.
In recent years, a hot topic of gender research is “reverse gender difference”. The research of boss direct employment vocational science laboratory also found that women’s job stability is higher than men’s, once they enter the senior management and show the ability advantage, they have a higher probability to maintain this advantage.
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