The following is the The dilemma and breakthrough of energy efficiency in China’s existing public buildings From Suggestions on the 14th five year plan recommended by recordtrend.com. And this article belongs to the classification: new energy, research report.
Large scale existing public buildings have been an important field of energy conservation due to their large stock and high energy consumption intensity, but it is also the field with the slowest progress. Compared with the new building energy saving, existing residential building energy saving transformation and renewable energy building utilization, the progress of existing public building energy saving is relatively backward. Looking forward to the 14th five year plan, public buildings will still play an important role in economic development. If we can not achieve a breakthrough in the system and mechanism, the unreasonable increase of building energy consumption caused by the low energy efficiency of existing public buildings will not only affect the realization of the national carbon emission target, but also cause a huge waste of social resources. There are not only technical factors but also institutional factors behind the fact that the progress of public building energy efficiency is not as expected. At the technical level, public buildings, especially large-scale public buildings, usually have multiple functions, and energy using equipment and systems are more complex than small and medium-sized public buildings and residential buildings. At the institutional level, public buildings involve many stakeholders, long decision-making process and difficult decision-making. These obstacles have many commonalities in the world. Compared with technical issues, we believe that the impact of policy and mechanism resistance is more far-reaching and more worthy of analysis and research.
We sort out the factors restricting the energy efficiency of existing public buildings from three aspects. On the one hand, because the core business of the building is to provide space use services, and then create economic value, so owners generally do not pay attention to building energy conservation. At present, the charging mode of building property services often causes the operation and maintenance side to conflict with the building energy conservation work, which makes many energy conservation ideas lack the motivation of project approval in enterprises and institutions. On the other hand, due to the lack of systematic and sustainable understanding of energy-saving work in the existing energy-saving projects by building owners and corresponding service organizations, and the lack of detailed energy-saving verification specifications with clear guidance and implementability in the market, the effect of energy-saving projects that have been carried out is often unsatisfactory, which to a certain extent interferes with the public and building owners’ understanding of the existing energy-saving projects Have the awareness of the potential and importance of public building energy conservation. On the other hand, the government lacks an effective management mechanism for energy efficiency of large-scale existing public buildings, resulting in the slow progress of energy efficiency of existing public buildings for a long time.
However, with the enhancement of the whole society’s awareness of energy conservation, the deepening of the adjustment of economic formats, the batch aging of construction mechanical and electrical equipment, and the increase of the stock of the real estate industry
With the change of new business model and the rapid development of domestic building energy saving technology, the situation of energy saving in existing public buildings will soon be changed.
The promotion of energy-saving awareness of the whole society makes non energy-saving buildings face all-round pressure. Thanks to years of solid and effective energy conservation and emission reduction work, the whole society has formed a common understanding of the macro level concepts of energy conservation, efficiency improvement, environmental protection and nature protection, and the awareness of energy conservation has been significantly improved. For example, more real estate enterprises choose to build green buildings; investors and construction users pay more attention to ESG (environment, social responsibility, corporate) Governance refers to the rating of environment, social responsibility and corporate governance. Enterprises with poor ESG rating will be subject to more and more pressure and development constraints from the upstream and downstream transmission of the industrial chain. Employees of enterprises also pay more attention to low-carbon behavior. These changes have created a good and positive environment for influencing and promoting more building owners and tenants to take energy-saving actions, and for the relationship between stakeholders to develop towards a more healthy mode. In such an atmosphere, if the policy can provide effective guidance for energy conservation action, it will receive higher social responsiveness than in the past.
The intensification of business type adjustment and batch aging of equipment bring an important window period for energy saving of public buildings. At the end of the 13th five year plan, the slowdown of China’s economic growth and the weakness of business activities caused by Sino US trade friction have affected most of the existing economic formats. Meanwhile, the concept of electricity supplier economy and sharing also has a certain impact on the traditional mode of operation depending on the public space. Recently, COVID-19 has also overlaid the impact of the business, which is one disaster after another. These factors accelerate the adjustment frequency of commercial formats, and bring greater business pressure and sense of urgency to public building owners. The intensive adjustment of business forms and the end of service cycle of equipment all provide greater impetus for the transformation of commercial buildings.
The real estate industry turns to the business model of stock updating, which makes the status of existing building energy saving more prominent. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, the real estate industry transformed from the incremental mode of land development to the stock mode of urban renewal. On the one hand, the shortage of land supply and high land price in big cities are squeezing the business space of real estate enterprises. On the other hand, the old function, internal structure and equipment configuration of early buildings do not match the urban development and market demand. In this situation, some enterprises and investors turn their attention to urban renewal projects, invest in the acquisition of existing buildings, improve their service effect and market value through business type adjustment, renovation and operation management, obtain property value-added income during the project period, and finally choose the opportunity to exit and obtain value-added profits. Through this project mode, the energy-saving work of existing public buildings has the opportunity to penetrate into the goal and process of transformation, and become one of the benchmarks of the project.
The rapid development of domestic building energy saving technology makes it possible to manage energy efficiency index of subsystem. In the “green and efficient refrigeration action plan” issued by seven national ministries and commissions in 2019, energy-saving requirements are put forward from two levels of refrigeration system as a whole and single equipment: “by 2030, the refrigeration energy efficiency of large public buildings will be increased by 30%” and “by 2022, the energy efficiency access level of household air conditioning will be increased by 30%, the multi connected air conditioning will be increased by 40%, the refrigerated display cabinet will be increased by 20%, and the heat pump water heater will be increased by 20%” And so on. It can be predicted that if similar ideas are applied to the building’s fresh air, data center and other systems to build a hierarchical energy-saving route from each individual equipment to each professional subsystem, the overall energy-saving effect of the building will be naturally formed, and whether the energy consumption indexes of various buildings given in the energy consumption standard for civil buildings can be achieved will have a basis.
The trend of Internet of things + artificial intelligence reduces the intermediate links of energy saving. During the 13th Five Year Plan period, with the rapid development of Internet, smart appliances and equipment, new modes of facilities and equipment management, including building electromechanical system, have emerged rapidly. During the 14th Five-Year, a new mode of “Internet plus artificial intelligence” building operation and maintenance, which has a very positive impact on the energy efficiency of public buildings, is expected to come out. Public facilities monitoring and patrol personnel in public buildings are replaced by remote and backstage intelligence centers, which greatly reduces the energy saving effect on the operation and maintenance personnel’s level and experience, and makes the energy saving performance of the equipment. It is really implemented. At the same time, the reduction of property management manpower demand can reduce the construction operation labor cost paid by the owners. Compared with the previous explanation of “reducing energy consumption cost after energy conservation”, the reduction of labor cost is more intuitive, more deterministic, and more acceptable to the owners.
Some of these changes and trends are slowly accumulating, for example, many technological improvements are typically gradual; others are abrupt, such as the comprehensive effects brought by COVID-19. Facing the change and seizing the opportunity, it is very important not only for the enterprise management, but also for the government. To adapt to these changes is not only the problem of achieving the goal of energy saving, but also directly related to the development and upgrading of manufacturing, service and other industries, and can have a greater and more positive impact. Therefore, we try to put forward some suggestions based on our own work and thinking.
Suggestion 1: mobilize owners’ enthusiasm for energy conservation by stimulating their sense of social responsibility
After economic development has reached a new stage, owners and enterprises have formed a new pursuit. Therefore, it is necessary to change the previous financial subsidy strategy focusing on economic stimulation, and vigorously commend the building owners and their enterprises’ increasing awareness of social responsibility, advocate them to shoulder more environmental responsibilities, and meet their pursuit of contribution, achievement and honor beyond economic value, so as to be the main way to mobilize the enthusiasm of the owners in the next stage .
Suggestion 2: carefully sort out all kinds of best practices to provide accurate “guidance” services for buildings
This paper classifies and arranges the accumulated information of equipment replacement guide, energy-saving operation strategy and energy-saving transformation scheme in various demonstration projects in the past, and makes popular and concise information or manual, which is posted in the prominent position of the website of the competent department of energy conservation for a long time and updated regularly, so as to facilitate the owners to query fair, objective and cutting-edge information, reduce the cognitive deviation of owners on energy-saving issues, and promote the development of energy conservation And reduce the probability of being misled by misinformation. Make good use of the “once in 20 years” opportunity of building overhaul to help owners do a good job of synchronous energy-saving upgrading.
Suggestion 3: take advantage of new technologies and new trends to eliminate the constraints of operation and maintenance on energy saving
The financial resources used to support local energy consumption monitoring system are used to encourage and guide the application and promotion of new technologies such as Internet of things. Through policy guidance and the preparation of standards and specifications to adapt to new technologies, promote the scale application of Internet of things in large-scale public buildings. Accelerate the merger of property management companies, eliminate small and medium-sized property management companies with low technology level, and promote the centralization, specialization and high efficiency of animal management industry. Make use of the new development trend of property management industry to resolve the restriction of building operation and maintenance on energy saving work.
Suggestion 4: promote the productization and standardization of energy-saving technologies, and promote the orderly improvement of energy efficiency of subsystems
Taking the opportunity of implementing and deepening the green and efficient refrigeration action plan, the concept of system energy efficiency is further expanded. In order to promote the integration and standardization of related products, the common energy consuming equipment and products in large-scale public buildings are divided into sub-systems according to their functions, and the energy efficiency of subsystems is increased from focusing on the energy efficiency of a single product to assessing the energy efficiency of sub-systems. Standardized subsystems such as “high efficiency fresh air room”, “high efficiency combined air conditioning room” and “high efficiency water pump room” are formed to build an intermediate bridge from product energy efficiency control to whole building energy efficiency control.
Recommendation 5: promote the concept of adaptation and related technical system
Speed up the establishment of “whole system, whole process” policy system of existing building adjustment, put the idea of adjustment through every link of energy-saving projects; develop relevant technical guidelines of existing building adjustment based on China’s actual national conditions; encourage the whole system and whole process contract responsibility system of energy-saving projects to ensure the real effect and sustainability of energy conservation.
Recommendation 6: strengthen energy saving certification, refine the formulation and implementation of guidelines
Improve the energy saving certification system, speed up the preparation of detailed operation guidelines and case guidance from various angles on the basis of existing relevant standards, and speed up the research and formulation of calculation methods and regulations of energy saving uncertainty.
Suggestion 7: build hierarchical energy consumption comparison system and energy saving certification system
The technical guidelines for building energy consumption comparison and evaluation are formulated at different levels, and the energy consumption comparison from the whole building electromechanical system to each subsystem is carried out to ensure that the energy consumption of the whole building electromechanical system, each subsystem and each equipment is comparable. Combined with the certification system, the energy efficiency improvement of the electromechanical system is promoted comprehensively.
Suggestion 8: support domestic energy saving technology
Strengthen the comparison with the international famous equipment and the electromechanical system form of developed countries, make the industry dynamic, technological development and other information objective, fair and transparent, make the relevant industries and even the whole society realize the advanced level of domestic equipment and system service scheme, and break the old cognition that “imported equipment is advanced”. Support the rapid development and growth of domestic enterprises, form and solidify the local solutions with Chinese characteristics, support our own technology with our own market, help our country lead the world in the overall industry, and make the self-confidence of domestic technology system a part of national self-confidence.
Suggestion 9: establish the administrative power and responsibility of building energy conservation closed-loop management
Extend the building energy-saving management function of housing construction department to the building operation stage, give it legal status, and solve the lack of supervision in the operation stage. Speed up the establishment of energy-saving management system in the operation stage of existing buildings, which is mainly under the unified centralized technical guidance of the housing and construction department, supplemented by the cooperation of industry organizations and the self-discipline of building owners.
The above analysis and suggestions are based on the observation and thinking of several practitioners who are concerned about the energy conservation of large-scale public buildings. They hope to provide reference for the planning of building energy conservation in the 14th five year plan, and invite more colleagues in the industry to make joint efforts, actively give suggestions to the main management departments, so as to make greater progress in the energy conservation of large-scale public buildings in the next five years.
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